Tarig E. Ahmed, Mekki A. Omer, Elgailani A. Abdalah, Abdelmoneim A. Taha


Field experiments were conducted for three consecutive seasons i.e. 2009/2010, 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 at Jabal Kordofan Research Farm. The main objective was to test the response of sorghum (Variety Urwasha) to urea micro-dose under moisture conservation enhancement provided by the water harvesting technique on gardud (sandy/clay loam) soils. Six treatments combinations (water harvesting techniques at three levels, namely, chisel plow with contour bunds, tied-ridges and flat  as a control, and soil fertility maintenance at two levels, notably urea at 0.25 N per feddan (10 kg) and no fertilizer)  were arranged in a RCBD with three replications. The parameters studied were rainfall (mm), soil water storage, plant population/ha, plant height (cm) after one month and at harvesting, root depth (cm) after one month and at harvesting, grain yield (ton/ha) and straw yield (ton/ha). Average soil water storage over three seasons indicated that chisel with contour bund and tied-ridge, respectively stored about 25% and 22% more soil water than flat (control). Plant establishment, plant height and root depth were highly significant. Grain and straw yields also differed significantly among treatments tested. The grain yield over three seasons under fertilizer application for chisel + terrace, tied-ridge, and control were 1.9 ton/ha, 1.2 ton/ha and 0.78 ton/ha, respectively. This study demonstrated that the application of fertilizer micro dose of urea and water harvesting techniques improved crop establishment, plant height, root length and grain yield.


Gardud soil, Jabal Kordofan, micro-dose, water harvesting, urea fertilization.

Full Text:



Elhag, A.M. 2001. The effect of different plowing systems on gardoud soil and sorghum yield. Annual report, Agricultural Engineering Research Proramme. Elobeid Research Station

FAO. 1991. A manual for the design and construction of water harvesting schemes for plant production. Water harvesting (AG/MISC/17/91). FAO, Pp. 74-90.

FAO. 2004. Fertilizer and the future IFA / FAO Agricultural conference on Global food security and role of sustainability. Fertilization Rome, Italy 16–20th March 2003 Pp 1–2.

Ghuman, B. S. Lal, R. and Shearer, W. 1991. Land clearing and use in humid Nigeria tropics Soc. Soil Sci. Am. J.55:178-183.

Farah, S.M., Salih, A.A. and Busher, A. 1992. Effect of three methods of Planting on Sorghum Productivity in Gadarif area, supplementary irrigations annual report. Sudan J. Agric. Res., 15, 37-48.

Hassan, M.E.A. 2011. Effect of different nitrogen sources on growth, yield and quality of fodder maize (Zea mays L.) Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 10(1): 17–23.

Lal, R., Delgado, J.A., Groffman, P.M., Millar, N., Dell, C. and Rotz, A. 2011. Management to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, Vol. 66 (4): 276-285.

Mckyes, E. 1985. Soil cutting and tillage. Elsevier Science Publisher - B. V. Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, Tokyo.

Mohammed, E. E. 2005. Comparative distances between water harvesting techniques for north Gadarif area. Agricultural Engineering Research Program, Gadarif Research Station, Annual Report 2004-2005.

Muchow, R.C., and Davis, R. 1988. Effect of nitrogen supply on the comparative productivity of maize and sorghum in a semi-arid tropical environment: II. Radiation interception and biomass accumulation. Field Crops Res. 18:17–30.

Ogundare, S.K., Babatunde, I.J. and Aduloju, M.O. 2014. Effect of Soil Applied Chromolaena Odorata Fresh Biomass and Urea Fertilizer on Plant Available Nitrogen, Growth and Yield of Maize (Zea MaysL) in Ejiba, Kogi State, Nigeria. Proceedings of the International Soil Tillage Research Organisation (ISTRO) pp 272–279, November 3-6, 2014, Akure, Nigeria.

Omer, M.A. and Elamin, E.M. 1997. Effect of tillage and contour diking on sorghum establishment and yield on sandy clay soil in Sudan. Soil and Tillage Research, 43 (3-4): 229-240.

Oweis, T., Hachum, A., Kijne, J. 1999. Water Harvesting and Supplementary Irrigation for Improved Water use Efficiency in dry areas. SWIM Paper 7: International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

Pacey, A. and Cullins, A. 1999. Rain water harvesting: The collection of Rainfall and Runoff in the Rural areas. Technical Center for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (ACP–EEC Lome Convention), p 216.

Richard, S.C and Sheppened, T.E. 1983. Bates Nitrogen fertilizers of land continuously cropped to corn (Zea mays L.). Can. J. Soil Sci., 63: 543–556.

Sime, G. and Aune, J.B. 2014. Maize response to fertilizer dosing at three sites in the central rift valley of Ethiopia. Agronomy, 4: 436-451.

Walberg, G., Bauer, M.E., Daughtry, C.S.T. and Housley, T.L. 1982. Effects of nitrogen nutrition on the growth, yield, and reflectance characteristics of corn canopies. Agronomy Journal, 74: 677-683.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.